Tuesday, March 24, 2020

Zen1 Essay Example For Students

Zen1 Essay No other figure in history has played a bigger part in opening the West to Buddhism than the eminent Zen author, D.T. Suzuki. One of the worlds leading authorities on Zen Buddhism, Suzuki authored more than a hundred popular and scholarly works on the subject. A brilliant and intuitive scholar, Dr. Suzuki communicated his insights in a lucid and energetic fashion. Diasetz Teitaro Suzuki was born in Japan in 1870, received his philosophical training as a Buddhist disciple at the great Zen monastery at Kamakura, and was a distinguished professor of Buddhist philosophy at Otani University, in Kyoto, Japan. Dr. Suzuki dedicated his life to the study of Zen Buddhism and to the interpretation and effective communication of its philosophy and concepts to the Western reader. He passed away in 1966.In An Introduction to Zen Buddhism, one of his most popular and respected works, Suzuki explains concepts and terminology such as satori, zazen, and koans, as well as the various elements of this p hilosophy. But while Mr. Suzuki takes nothing for granted concerning the reader’s understanding of the fundamentals, he does not give a merely rudimentary overview. All of his insights, particularly regarding the elements of the unconscious mind and the relation of Zen philosophy to traditional Western philosophy, go far beyond other philosophical and religious sources for their penetrating clarity and timeless wisdom. What is most important about D.T. Suzukis work, however—and what comes across so powerfully in this book, is his unparalleled ability to communicate the experiential aspect of Zen. The intensity here with which Zen philosophy comes to life is without parallel in the entire canon of Buddhist literature. Suzuki stands apart from all other Zen Buddhist teachers and writers before or since mainly because of his exceptional ability to eloquently capture in words the seemingly inexpressible essence of Zen. Where so many other men have failed, he has succeeded , and succeeded brilliantly. Suzuki was a master at teaching by example and anecdote, and this book is a good example of that technique. As he describes so well in An Introduction to Zen Buddhism, Suzukis own realization of who he really was, his grasping of the fundamental principle of existence, came when he was only twenty-six years old. He had been studying Zen for some years but without much success, and was increasingly demoralized by his failure to reach the enlightenment he so fervently sought. Then, in 1896, he was selected by his renowned teacher, Soyen Shaku, to go to North America to help translate the classic text, the Tao Te Ching, into English. (Suzuki 54) The pressure of his imminent departure turned out to be what was needed. Suzuki realized that the Zen retreat scheduled for just before he was due to leave Japan might be his very last opportunity, in the immediate future at least, of solving the koan he was working on. Determined to solve the puzzle, he redoubled his efforts and threw all his energies into one final attempt to reach an understanding of the concept that had thus far eluded him. Up until then he had been conscious of the koan in his mind. But to be conscious of Mu is to be separate from it. Towards the end of his stay at the Zen retreat, on about the fifth day, he ceased to be conscious of Mu and understood that he was one with Mu, and identified with Mu, so that there was no longer the separateness implied by being conscious of Mu. We will write a custom essay on Zen1 specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Suzuki explains in the book that this was samadhi, but that samadhi is not enough. One must come out of that state, be awakened from it, and that awakening is wisdom. That moment of coming out of the samadhi and seeing it for what it is—that is satori. He relates that his first thought as he was awakened from that state of deep samadhi by the sound of a small hand bell being struck, was that he finally understood the concept at long last. .ua40cad0bc07dac2aad55008118d2c3bd , .ua40cad0bc07dac2aad55008118d2c3bd .postImageUrl , .ua40cad0bc07dac2aad55008118d2c3bd .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ua40cad0bc07dac2aad55008118d2c3bd , .ua40cad0bc07dac2aad55008118d2c3bd:hover , .ua40cad0bc07dac2aad55008118d2c3bd:visited , .ua40cad0bc07dac2aad55008118d2c3bd:active { border:0!important; } .ua40cad0bc07dac2aad55008118d2c3bd .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ua40cad0bc07dac2aad55008118d2c3bd { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ua40cad0bc07dac2aad55008118d2c3bd:active , .ua40cad0bc07dac2aad55008118d2c3bd:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ua40cad0bc07dac2aad55008118d2c3bd .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ua40cad0bc07dac2aad55008118d2c3bd .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ua40cad0bc07dac2aad55008118d2c3bd .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ua40cad0bc07dac2aad55008118d2c3bd .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ua40cad0bc07dac2aad55008118d2c3bd:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ua40cad0bc07dac2aad55008118d2c3bd .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ua40cad0bc07dac2aad55008118d2c3bd .ua40cad0bc07dac2aad55008118d2c3bd-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ua40cad0bc07dac2aad55008118d2c3bd:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: My Goal EssaySuzuki teaches in An Introduction to Zen Buddhism, that when penetrating deep down into the center of one’s own being one finds a nameless transparency, an awake space filled by all the world, from one’s own thoughts and feelings and body to all of the stars in the heavens. This still, spacious nothingness is the heart of everyone’s being. Thus to find this nothingness is to see that one is fundamentally united with all beings. At root there is only one—the One. (Suzuki 96)Furthermore, to the Zen Buddhist, awakening to the One is primarily a matter of actual seeing, of bare attention, rather than intellectual understanding—vi tal as understanding is. This seeing is not yet another state of mind that comes and goes. It is awake No-mind, the foundational ground of being that underlies everything and is the source of all states of mind, including samadhi. The contents of mind come and go in No-mind. But what Mr. Suzuki strives to make very clear in his book is that seeing who you really are does not mean that you now know what everyone is thinking, or what is going to happen next year. You don’t necessarily develop any special intellectual powers, which can be both confusing and a distraction. Realization is in fact simpler and more available than this. What is given in the present moment, given not to a separate person but arising within the edgeless space of awareness, is seen and understood by a Zen Buddhist to be enough for that particular moment. (Suzuki 145) But Suzuki cautions that one glimpse of one’s true nature is not enough. We need to stabilize awareness. In other words, we need to continue attending to who we really are, for our nature is already and always stable. Awakening more deeply to our fundamental steadiness, we realize we have never really been rooted in any other place at all. Deepening this awareness involves all of our energies, yet at the same time it is simply being natural.Growing into adulthood, we became profoundly identified with our self-image. The discovery that this image is not our fundamental nature takes time to get used to. But this is in fact a letting go rather than an accumulation of more information. We come to realize, again and again, that there is at root nothing to achieve, nowhere to go, nothing to be. We are reminded instead by Suzuki that in Zen, each individual is an absolute entity, and as such that person is related to all other individuals; and that this nexus of infinite interrelationships between everyone and everything is made possible in the realm of Emptiness because they all find they are existing there as individual realities. (Suzuki 151)Also, as we keep reawakening to our ‘Original Face’, as Zen puts it, which is present in the very midst of our busy lives, we discover that this is a natural and effective way of living. Though we discover there is nothing to do at cent er, and no one there to do it, we find to our amazement that plenty of activity is issuing forth from this inactivity, this stillness, this absence. Suzuki, in his concise and assuring style, convinces us through a number of insightful examples, that gradually, each in our own way, we can discover that living from the Source, which often feels like living from Not-knowing, has an uncanny wisdom about it. It can be trusted. Others have experienced this revelation, and so can we.One interesting highlight of An Introduction to Zen Buddhism, is when Suzuki relates that his lay Buddhist name, ‘Daisetsu’, means ‘Great Simplicity’. In later years, however, Suzuki joked that it really meant ‘Great Stupidity’. But this isnt only a joke, it has a deeper and more profound meaning as well. It is similar to the idea of the holy fool. It is what the English philosopher Douglas Harding calls ‘alert idiocy’. To grasp the fundamental principle of existence one must ultimately recognize and understand that deep down one knows nothing, yet paradoxically this nothingness is in fact the infinitely w ise, loving, and dynamic source of all things. D.T. Suzuki lived to the ripe old age of 96. He was well-known for his dedicated industriousness, right up to the end of his life, and for his deep-rooted warmth and optimism. One of his favorite teachings was to remember what a frail thing life was, and this being so, to consider everyday of your life your last and dedicate it to the fulfillment of your obligations. Never let the thought of a long life seize upon you, for then you are apt to indulge in all kinds of dissipation, and end your days in dire disgrace. .u9739a86a9494a7901d0cda3f6bd20e73 , .u9739a86a9494a7901d0cda3f6bd20e73 .postImageUrl , .u9739a86a9494a7901d0cda3f6bd20e73 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u9739a86a9494a7901d0cda3f6bd20e73 , .u9739a86a9494a7901d0cda3f6bd20e73:hover , .u9739a86a9494a7901d0cda3f6bd20e73:visited , .u9739a86a9494a7901d0cda3f6bd20e73:active { border:0!important; } .u9739a86a9494a7901d0cda3f6bd20e73 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u9739a86a9494a7901d0cda3f6bd20e73 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u9739a86a9494a7901d0cda3f6bd20e73:active , .u9739a86a9494a7901d0cda3f6bd20e73:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u9739a86a9494a7901d0cda3f6bd20e73 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u9739a86a9494a7901d0cda3f6bd20e73 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u9739a86a9494a7901d0cda3f6bd20e73 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u9739a86a9494a7901d0cda3f6bd20e73 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u9739a86a9494a7901d0cda3f6bd20e73:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u9739a86a9494a7901d0cda3f6bd20e73 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u9739a86a9494a7901d0cda3f6bd20e73 .u9739a86a9494a7901d0cda3f6bd20e73-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u9739a86a9494a7901d0cda3f6bd20e73:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The importance of information systems EssayHaving read Mr. Suzuki’s book I have the highest regard for his intellect and his warm humanity, which come through on every page. While trying to read and understand all that he is saying is difficult for someone unfamiliar with Zen Buddhism, the progress I made while reading his words was amazing to me. He has taken an intricate subject and somehow made it decipherable and understandable to anyone who is willing to devote some time and concentration to the task. The man was a gifted communicator indeed. As a religious philosopher he stands second to none in the Twentieth Century, and has left behind a fine legacy of work for future generations to read and contemplate. Bibliography:

Friday, March 6, 2020

The Rise and Fall of Weimar and the Rise of Hitler

The Rise and Fall of Weimar and the Rise of Hitler Between World War One and Two, Germany experienced several changes in government: from an emperor to democracy to the rise of a new dictator, a FÃ ¼hrer. Indeed, it’s this last leader, Adolf Hitler, who directly began the second of the twentieth century’s two great wars. The German Revolution of 1918-19 Faced with defeat in the First World War, the military leaders of Imperial Germany convinced themselves that a new civilian government would do two things: take the blame for the loss, and persuade the soon to be winners of the war to demand only a moderate punishment. The socialist SDP was invited to form a government and they pursued a moderate course, but as Germany began to fracture under pressure so calls for a full-fledged revolution were demanded by the extreme left. Whether Germany really did experience a revolution in 1918-19, or whether that was defeated is debated. The Creation and Struggle of the Weimar Republic The SDP was running Germany, and they resolved to create a new constitution and republic. This was duly created, based at Weimar because the conditions in Berlin were unsafe, but problems with the allies’ demands in the Treaty of Versailles produced a rocky path, which only got worse in the early 1920s as reparations helped hyperinflation and impending economic collapse. Yet Weimar, with a political system that produced coalition after coalition, survived, and experienced a cultural Golden Age. The Origins of Hitler and the Nazi Party In the chaos following the end of World War One, many fringe parties emerged in Germany. One was investigated by an army man called Hitler. He joined, displayed a talent for demagoguery, and soon took over the Nazi Party and expanded its membership. He might have moved too early believing his Beer Hall Putsch would work, even with Ludendorff on the side, but managed to turn a trial and time in prison into a triumph. By the mid-twenties, he’d resolved to at least start his rise to power semi-legally. The Fall of Weimar and Hitler’s Rise to Power The Golden Age of Weimar was cultural; the economy was still dangerously dependent on American money, and the political system was unstable. When the Great Depression removed the US loans the German economy was crippled, and dissatisfaction with the center parties led to extremists like the Nazis growing in votes. Now the top level of German politics slipped towards the authoritarian government, and democracy failed, all before Hitler managed to exploit violence, despair, fear and political leaders who underestimated him to become Chancellor. Treaty of Versailles and Hitler The Treaty of Versailles was long blamed for leading directly to the Second World War, but this is now considered an overstatement. Nevertheless, it’s possible to argue several aspects of the Treaty did contribute to Hitler’s rise to power. The Creation of the Nazi Dictatorship By 1933 Hitler was Chancellor of Germany, but was far from secure; in theory, President Hindenburg could sack him whenever he wanted. Within months he had wrecked the constitution and established a powerful, gripping dictatorship thanks to violence and the final act of political suicide from the opposition parties. Hindenburg then died, and Hitler combined his job with the presidency to create a FÃ ¼hrer. Hitler would now reshape all areas of German life.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Human nature and politics Dissertation Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Human nature and politics - Dissertation Example This essay tells that in the present day turmoil, observed worldwide in various political circles, and the disillusionment faced by the citizens thereafter, the focus has steadily remained on the changing political actors and their varying political ideologies, which are in reality superficial in nature. In a persistent move to examine various political theories and doctrines, one has failed to observe the most important aspect, which plays a decisive role in the world of politics and power play (both globally and nationally), which is the ‘human nature.’ However, the term human nature is not easily defined, and includes complex characteristics like human perception, reasoning, behavior, ways of feeling, thinking, that are naturally observed in any individual in context of his or her surrounding socio-political world. The questions as to what causes these characteristics to take shape and form within human thought processes, in what exact manner the causal factors work, and as to how well the human nature is entrenched, form the bases of various researches in the world of western philosophy, with considerable implications in the practical fields of psychological and biological sciences, religious studies, politics, and ethics. This is primarily owing to the fact that Ð °human nature can be seen as antecedent of a benchmark for ‘living well’ and behavioral norms, while on the other hand it can also be perceived as a characteristic that creates problems and constraints in the way of a good life. Aristotle in his virtue theory claimed that ‘virtues’ are human qualities that assist an individual to achieve the benchmark and ‘live well,’ which is in concordance to human nature.5 Machiavelli and Hobbes on the other hand believed that human nature tends to be egoistic thus creating problems and constraints in ‘living well.’ Machiavelli further suggests that each individual has the potential of ‘li ving well’ and being happy, as long as he/she does not face suffering. Hobbes however, takes an extreme view and states that human nature is entirely derived from materialist axioms, and the state

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

World Wild foundation advertisement Research Paper

World Wild foundation advertisement - Research Paper Example It is virtually in all areas of society. Nonetheless, violence is highly depicted in advertisements, from advertising household commodities to industrial machinery. In addition, violence is not only expressed physically, it is also expressed socially and psychologically. All these forms of violence are exhibited through advertisements. Nonetheless, media stakeholders have tried dealing with this issue (Hamilton, 1998). This paper will consider violence in relation to advertisement and how it affects children and women. The significance of violence in television interference impact is highlighted by proof that violence is common in television programs. Nonetheless, while some advertisers avoid programs containing violent content, other advertisers do not air violent programs. Bushman conducted research on the impact of a violent content on memory for advertisements not containing violence. Bushman concluded that while violent television programs may cause enraged thoughts, this may af fect the processing of nonviolent advertisement programs. Violent advertising affect memory of individuals, mostly children and women. ... Also, violence is mostly recalled when a person is placed in a violent environment. An explanation for this is that violence in a violent environment makes violence associated concepts more within reach (National Television Violence Study 2, 1998). The attack on the Twin Towers instigated negative impact on the economy of the country and also had a tremendous effect on world economies. Therefore, advertisements related to the Twin Towers have negative effects to women and children. The analysis of the World Wild foundation advertisement takes into account children and women as the targets of the advertisement. This considers the objective of the advertisement and the view of the advertising content or intention of the advertiser. The analysis also looks at the children and women as advertising resource. This can stimulate impacts at the level of thought, behavioral or affective level. The analysis also may refer to women and children as receivers of advertising. This notion is linked with the habits and behavior of intake of advertising by the women and children (National Television Violence Study 2, 1998). The World Wild foundation advertisement does not consider women and children viewers of the advertisement. This is because there is a person pointing a gun at a child. This will make women and children have a negative view of the advertisement. This is because children will view themselves as targets of violence and women will have a negative attitude due to their care giving nature. The city of New Jersey lost the largest number of people after New York City. Over 90 different nations lost nationals in the World Trade Centre attacks. Additionally, there were two individuals who were listed in the official death number. This was

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Unhealthy Lifestyles And Obese Children Physical Education Essay

Unhealthy Lifestyles And Obese Children Physical Education Essay The figure of obesity children is rapidly increasing due to their unhealthy lifestyle and eating habit such as addicted to fast food, video games, and online games which occur in most of the children community nowadays. Unhealthy lifestyle caused most of the children dislike physical bodily movement and lack of physical fitness. A number of researchers involved in teaching physical classes always emphasize the relationship between decreasing of participation in physical activity towards increasing of health-related risks such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease (Domangue, 2009). We as physical teachers have to understand factors leading to children physical inactivity. It is very important to understand why youngsters withdraw themselves from physical activity as they get matured. In physical education classes, fitness testing act as a very crucial component which help to create awareness of health concerns on physical inactivity cases especially among children (Domangue, 20 09). Physical activity is defined as any type (mild, moderate, vigorous) of bodily movement for instance jumping rope, soccer, weight lifting, running, walking, taking stairs and others which can be our daily routine activities, recreational activities, as well as sport activities. Literally, health-related physical fitness means physical activity that involved mild or adverse physical body movement that contribute to their general body health (Karinharju, 2005). School-based physical class explains when participant is physically active, heart pumping rate increases and produces heavier breathing than normal breathing. Unfortunately, a lot of schools neglected physical education class and only focus on physical class. In fact, physical education and physical activity are equally important elements that contribute towards children health development. In Silverman et.al. (2008) paper stated youth fitness testing was designed to embarrass those children who are less capable in physical activity. Those children who cannot perform well especially those obese children will be insulted by their peers and eventually they will withdraw themselves from involving in physical activity. We should not turn children down in physical activity by right as a school teacher we should help children to cultivate interest in physical activity. For instance, a plump children will feel embarrass while doing stretching. They might unable to reach the desired point and will be laughed by their peers. Girls might not like to play soccer, running around the field fighting for a ball. They might prefer jumping rope. So while designing fitness testing, more consideration should be taken such as gender, body size and fitness. As a physical teacher, we should help students to learn more about fitness and physical activity in order to promote positive attitudes on physical activity. I further belief if fitness testing was used in positive and appropriate ways it will enhance students physical educational experience as well as promote good attitudes and interest. There is few discussion on fitness testing has been done in recent years and the discussions were basically taken in three forms. First, some researchers suggest discontinuing school-based youth fitness testing in physical education program. Because school teachers are more focus on students activity performance instead of health-related fitness (Silverman, 2008; Rowland, 1995; Corbin et al., 1995). Second, researchers suggested that school-based physical classes should emphasize on educational aspects. Tests and teaching should carried out together to help to improve students fitness and knowledge (Silverman, 2008; Cale Harris, 2002; Corbin Pangrazi, 1993). Lastly, thorough examination of student fitness achievement testing is needed before designing and making decision on the future of physical class context and tests. (Silverman, 2008; Cale et al., 2007; Corbin et al., 1995; Keating Silverman, 2004). To be physically fit, one has to be physically active. Definition for physical fitness is an adaptive state that varies with the individuals growth and maturity status and with habitual activity and lifestyle (Domangue, 2009; Malina, Bouchard Bar-Or, 2004). Furthermore, physical fitness can be categorized into two categories which is health-related fitness and performance-related fitness. Health-related fitness is fitness that everyone needs which contributes to maintain and improve health status of our body. Performance-related fitness refers to skilled athletes or performers who need to be success or excel in their performance in sports activities. Basically, health-related fitness is assessed by measuring cardiovascular fitness, flexibility, muscular endurance, strength, and body fat content or body mass index (BMI) (Hale, 2005; Corbin, 2005). Rowland, 1995 drew a conclusion that physical teachers should not stop fitness testing, but should implement fitness tests in the physical education curriculum. Children and adults have different used of fitness test. So, while planning physical activities, this should be taken in concern. Children cannot decide whether to participate in fitness testing or how to use the results of those physical assessments. Whereas, adults are able to decide and choose whether to use fitness testing as a summative assessment to check their current health-related fitness levels of how fit they are at the period of time or as formative assessment to continuously assess health-related fitness level in order to modify fitness program as part of program planning. Adults who decided to go for either formal (with trainers) or informal training (self-training) already ready and have some commitment to do physical activity. But children do not have such commitment and do not know how to make decision. There fore, youth fitness testing can have opposite result if it is not perform appropriately, and will have consequences to develop negative attitude and patterns of physical activity among children. But, youth fitness testing should play an important role in school physical education setting in order to enhance students fitness (Silverman, 2008; Bar-Or, 1993; Cale Harris, 2002; Whitehead, Pemberton Corbin, 1990), and implementation of fitness testing should be examined often to prevent any deviation that will result in the misuse of fitness tests (Silverman, 2008). In order to have positive impact of physical testing in school, silverman has suggested some guidelines to implement a positive impact fitness test. First, youth fitness testing should be integrated as a part of fitness instruction in curriculum. Although assessment is important goal of teaching but without a solid curriculum it is merely testing (Stewart, Elliot, Boyce Block, 2005). Second, fitness testing result should be used by teachers to assess their fitness instruction and enhance students learning (Corbin, 1981) while physical classes. Long-term and short-term outcomes of fitness testing of children should be taken into concern by teachers and curriculum planners planning for future activities. Third, the point of having physical class is for students to improve their body fitness and towards meeting their healthy zone standard. We should teach students not to assume that fitness testing will automatically increase their physical activity levels but it is just to test their body fitness. It is important to understand their body fitness and help to design future activities. If fitness testing was used appropriately and used as an educational tool, it has the potential to promote physical activity and also help to improve health-related fitness. In many schools in Malaysia, students are only required to be tested on fitness test once in a year. Compare to academic tests physical test is far lesser. During fitness tests, Instructional time spent on fitness testing should not be ignored. Without positively increasing youngsters physical activity levels and health-related fitness does not make sound use of fitness tests. Health-related fitness testing should be carried out in school, and it is important to include both physical activity and also health-related fitness in physical education class so that student will able to understand the difference and complementary nature of the concepts (Silverman, 2008). Health-related fitness has to be taught as part of curriculum so that student able to understand the concept and the purpose of the test. Health-related fitness testing also can be used as a tool to examine concepts and components of health-related fitness and physical activity. For example, while teacher introducing the sit-up test, teacher can discuss on the anatomy of the body and the function of the muscles involved and how the body perform the activity and how to improve their strength and endurance. Provide important information and knowledge while doing the activity, student can understand better the purpose of having each test and also prevent to get injured. Without proper knowledge, stu dents are more tend to get injured, due to lack of knowledge of proper posture undergoing particular activity. Teacher has to educate students the correct posture and way to perform those activity to protect our body muscle and anatomy. Lacking important knowledge might influence students performance, motivation and interest as well. Eventually, they will cultivate negative attitude and their bad experiences in physical education will influence their attitudes towards future assessment and physical activity and eventually cause them to withdraw from physical activity. Another reason why teaching both health-related fitness and physical activity is important, because the current examination of physical activity assessment program may mislead students into thinking that regular participation in any mild to moderate physical activity for 30-60 minutes is sufficient to maintain their health. NASPE recommends those children aged 5 to 12 years should be physically active for at least 60 minutes to several hours of per day (Domangue, 2009). As children get matured, the recommended duration for physical activity varies. Adolescents need lesser hour to be physically active compare to children. They need only 30-60 minutes daily (Yesalonia, 2009). Unfortunately, many school-aged students have too little opportunity to participate in these recommended physical activities during school hour. In this situation, students are required to balance their physical activity levels outside the school as extra-curriculum. Outside the regular school hours, many children could be physically active in sedentary activities such as homework, computers and video-games which children only required to sit on chair. This can affect activity levels of school-aged children. Perhaps the most important time for children to be active is after school is between three and six p.m. But often children nowadays are not, they will rather spend time on sedentary activities or their academic curriculum. Parents have press more on their academic rather than their physical achievements and also safety issues parents stop letting children to involve in physical activities. . As a school teacher, we should encourage parents to allow their children to be physically active instead of filling all those active hours with tuitions, piano classes and homework. Children can have opportunity to be active after school hours by participating in extra-curricular activity programs, such as basket ball, soccer, as well as community-based a ctivity programs. Remember, physical activity and health-related fitness is both equally important. We should not too emphasize on physical achievement and ignore the basic understanding on health-related fitness. Through the health-related fitness testing, teacher is responsible to educate students the purpose of participating in a variety of physical activity form and methods to improve corresponding health-related fitness components as well as the recommended duration in performing physical activity. Health-related fitness testing is an excellent context to teach students to examine on both health-related fitness and physical activity concept. Students can understand health-related fitness not only improve their health level (Silverman, 2008; Simons-Morton et al., 1988) but also their cognitive skills (Hillman, Castelli, Buck 2005). School-based physical classes may not done an adequate job in teaching students on the importance of health-related fitness or have taught separately with physical activity. If health-related fitness testing is done separately, there is no way that student will develop the knowledge that can be developed from an understanding of both health-related fitness and physical activity assessment. Teacher should teach assessment skills to students. If student able to use fitness test for self-assessment, they are able to use the understanding of health-related fitness learned during physical class and able to plan their own physical activity programs according to their desired target. Students were taught that fitness testing can be used as formative assessment to develop and modify their physical activity routines to help them have the knowledge to start an appropriate level. Assessment skills also able to help students keep participating in physical activity if they know what their expected goal is. The formative testing experience will reinforce fitness gains and also enhance additional motivation for students to continue involved in physical activity (Silverman, 2008). Students learn to compare the scores with their previous performance and to design a suitable goals and activity according to their body level. Applications of appropriate use of fitness tests taught in clas s equip students with the knowledge and skills to participate and to select appropriate physical activity and help them to perform self-assessment. To incorporating health-related fitness assessment into fitness education, teacher should teach students the purpose of doing the fitness test or other fitness-based activity. Student should understand the instructional content before performing the test. Then, fitness testing should be formative. Teacher should plan the educational experience to use fitness testing results to design future activity for students while also teaching students that health-related fitness can be improved and assessment is integral to that process. Another way is to conduct fitness education by infusing fitness lessons into curriculum. This can be done by relating each activity done to fitness. So, student will have better understanding on how those activities related and improve their body fitness, why that aspect of fitness is important. With that knowledge, students are able to understand and eventually improve their performance on that activity. For example, students participate in school gymnasium sh ould know that gymnasium activity are exercising their heart and will help make them healthy and good for their heart. They should know the health-related fitness component is called aerobic fitness and helps to prevent heart disease. With this understanding, students were being more motivated on physical activity. The use of fitness test helps students to understand health-related fitness and how testing can be used to improve and enhance fitness. Infusing health-related fitness test in physical education can increase student knowledge, attitudes and fitness. In primary schools students, teacher will help students in assessment and plan their future physical activity, but in secondary school, after fitness testing, students could provide an analysis of their strengths and weaknesses and develop a fitness program suitable to them. Teacher could use variety of teaching strategies such as reciprocal teaching, self-check against predetermined rubrics and assessments such as using the analysis and plan for providing feedback to the students (Silverman, 2008) to help students to improve and also to monitor their program. Planning and assessment of physical activity is necessary in order to improve students learning experience and to meet the goals of instructions (Silverman, 2008). Without assessment, we are unable to know our standard and level. Teachers act as a reflection as a form of assessment to assess fitness education the result of the assessment is for the teacher to do self-assessment and reflect on the lesson. Teacher means act as a problem solvers (i.e., design the content or lesson to achieve goal and to assess achievement of the goal, and whether there are other better ways to enhance instruction). Second step is student learning. Fitness testing result is to examine student learning from multiple perspectives (increase various component of health-related fitness, increases in physical activity, attitude toward fitness and physical activity). This health-related fitness test may tell how fit students are, ignoring the fitness improvement, physical activity and attitude development. Next is the appropriate use of accountability for assessing fitness education. Principals should be aware that fitness testing may lead negative consequences. Always ensure that the test is use appropriately and must be used within the context and perform a complete fitness education program if we want students to live in physically active lives. Assessment and accountability program should design appropriately and examine from time to time being as one aspect of student assessment and physical grading. As a school physical education teacher, I strongly believe that health-related fitness tests that are used in an appropriate educational manner can be a useful tool to enhance student learning and also health level. Although there is wide variation in the capabilities of students, the main purpose of fitness instruction should be that every student can work towards being fit and reach healthy level. While designing the test, physical class teachers should consider those less capability students and help them to improve by educating health-related fitness. The main focus on physical education should be on evolving fitness process, students participation regardless on performance and result achieved. A well-planned physical fitness program with a positive classroom environment is very crucial to yield positive attitude, interest and motivation of students on physical activity especially for those less capability. Teachers should put more efforts on those students who may feel fitness t esting is an embarrassment. Silverman (2008) suggested that assessment methods can move from group administration of test to pairs testing or self-assess. It can help to utilize time better, develop self-assessment skills and less embarrassing for most students. In a nutshell, I agree to infuse health-related fitness in physical class. Both physical activity and health-related fitness is equaled important to enhance body fitness and health. In order to have positive outcome, physical educator should designed an appropriate program for students in order to improve their fitness and encourage them to participate in physical activity and not to emphasize on performance achieved. Educators have to alert those students who are less capable in physical activities and encourage them, support them to involve in physical activity and educate them on health-related fitness. So that they can understand why they need to do that particular activity and what is the benefits of doing that. Educators should stress more on health-related fitness rather than performance-related fitness. Cale, L., Harris, J. (2002). National testing for children: Issues, concerns, and alternatives. British Journal of Teaching Physical Education, 33 (1), 32-34. Cale, L., Harris, J., Chen, M.H. (2007). More than 10 years after The horse is deadà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦: Surely it must be time to dismount?! Pediatric Exercise Sciences, 19, 115-131. Corbin, C.B. (1981). First things first but dont stop there. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 52(1), 36-38. Corbin, C.B. (2005). Keynote address: Promoting active living: The key to shaping up for a lifetime. Vermont Association of Health, Physical Education, Dance, and Recreation Fall Conference. November, 2005. Killington, Vermont. Corbin, C.B., Pangrazi, R.P. (1993). Physical fitness: Questions teachers ask. Journal of Physical Education, Research and Dance, 64 (7), 14-19. Corbin, C.B., Pangrazi, R.P., Welk, G.L. (1995). A response to The horse is dead: Lets dismount. Pediatric Exercise Science, 7, 347-351. Domangue, E.A. (2009). A critical examination into motivation and gender in youth physical fitness testing (Doctoral dissertation), Louisiana State University, LA. Hale, D. (2005). An invitation to health. (11th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Learning, Inc. Hillman, C.H., Castelli, D.M., Buck, S.M. (2005). Aerobic fitness and neurocognitive function in healthy preadolescent children. Medicine Science in Sports Exercise, 37, 1967-1974. Karinharju, K (2005). Physical fitness and its testing in adults with intellectual disability. (Master dissertation), University of Jyvaskyla, Finland. Keating, X.D., Silverman, S. (2004). Teachers use of fitness tests in school-based physical education programs. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 8, 145-165. Malina, R.M., Bouchard, C., Bar-Or, O. (2004). Growth, maturation, and physical activity. (2nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Rowland, T.W. (1995). The horse is dead; Lets dismount. Pediatric Exercise Science, 7, 117-120. Silverman, S., Keating, X.D., Phillips, S.R. (2008). A lasting impression: A pedagogical perspective on youth fitness testing. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 12: 146-166 Simons-Morton, B.G., Parcel, G.S., OHara, N.M., Blair, S.N., Pate, R.R. (1988). Health-related physical fitness in childhood: status and recommendations. Annual Review of Public Health, 9, 403-425. Yesalonia, S. (2009). Understanding school students perspectives regarding physical activity and fitness (Doctoral dissertation), Available from Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3352936)

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Experiencing Salvation in as I Lay Dying

Experiencing Salvation in As I Lay Dying ENGLISH 215 October 31, 2011 William Faulkner’s As I Lay Dying centers on the absurd journey that the Bundren family takes to Jefferson to bury their dead mother, Addie. Faulkner frames this journey through the lens of various narrators with a specific focus on the characters’ innermost thoughts and deep interior monologues. Although the novel’s plot revolves around the Bundren family, characters outside of the family are essential to provide an objective view. Without these outside characters, much of Faulkner’s commentary would be lost.One of the most important characters outside of the Bundren family is Cora Tull. It is through her character that Faulkner makes his most potent commentary on the ideas of sin, salvation, and hypocrisy. With the strong irony that is employed throughout the novel, Faulkner twists Cora’s seemingly ideal moral character and uses her instead as an example of what not to be. Throu gh the juxtaposition of Addie and Cora, Faulkner seeks to highlight religious hypocrisy and show that Cora’s idea of religious salvation is faulty.Instead, Faulkner believes (as demonstrated through Addie) that true salvation consists of an enlightened state of self-awareness and concrete understanding of one’s own sin. Religion is echoed in every facet of Cora’s life. On the surface, she appears to be a warm-hearted Christian spirit, but it becomes quickly evident that Cora’s perception of religion is skewed. Cora is always seen serving her neighbors but Cora’s charity is not genuine. She serves not out of love, but to keep up a Christian appearance and receive a promised heavenly reward (23, 93).When Cora attempts to serve, even her husband (Vernon Tull) comments that she tries to â€Å"crowd the other folks away and get in closer than anybody else (71). †She is very concerned with the eternal state of others around her, but again, her con cern is not out of love. Cora states that only God can see into the heart (167), but in her piety Cora criticizes others and believes that they will only be saved if they adopt her works based religion.Cora’s life experiences have only increased her desire to serve more dutifully because she has earned the respect of others in the community. In this ironic way, Cora’s hypocrisy has served her well on this earth. In contrast, Addie’s life experiences have molded her into a defiant, unfulfilled and bitter woman. Through Cora’s eyes, Addie is a bad mother and is in desperate need of repentance. Cora believes that Addie is blind to her own sin and that it is sacrilegious to trust in Jewel instead of turning to God for salvation.However, it is Cora that cannot see and passes judgment blindly. Cora does not know the implications behind Addie’s favoritism to Jewel and that the man Cora has placed on such a holy pedestal (Minister Whitfield) is in fact a s ource of Addie’s sin. Cora does not know that it was Minister Whitfield that wanted to cover up the affair and that Addie’s consent to remain quiet were out of love for the brief satisfaction she had found in him – Addie has always remained genuine; she had no desire to be deceitful.Cora’s misinformed judgments are full of words that â€Å"go straight up in a thin line, quick and harmless (173). † In Addie’s section in the novel, she describes the scene where Cora wants Addie to pray with her to receive a salvation (168, 174). The reason Cora thought that Addie could receive salvation by saying a prayer is because Cora’s religion is empty, full of mindless words and â€Å"people to whom sin is just a matter of words, to them salvation is just words too (176). Cora’s word-oriented religious hypocrisy is a direct manifestation of Addie’s idea that words lack meaning and are just â€Å"shape(s) to fill a lack (172). † In distinguishing the differences between Addie and Cora, it is made clear who can ultimately experience salvation. Even though pious Cora may have experienced some worldly success, Faulkner is suggesting that she will never obtain salvation because she is blinded in her hypocrisy and is consumed with duty and a works-based religion. Cora knows sin as it can be expressed in words but not in practice.Addie knows the extent of sin because (unlike Cora) she has truly experienced it. Even though Addie expresses discontent, she is at least aware of her sin and its relationship to the nature of her being. Faulkner criticizes Cora’s judgmental, insincere, and pious character and instead presents Addie’s self-aware, authentic, and pragmatic understanding as the way to experience sanctification in this life. It is Addie, not Cora, who will receive the reward of true enlightenment and salvation.

Friday, January 10, 2020

How the Existence of Firms Shows That There Are Imperfections in the Market Essay

Introduction In 1776 moral philosopher and father of modern economy published his book â€Å"The Wealth of Nations† which singlehandedly changed the way we looked at political economy. The book, which was Adam Smith’s essay originally explaining why some nations are wealthier and more flourished than others, featured a few key insights. One of the most important ideas of the book was what he mentioned as the â€Å"invisible hand† of the economy, stating that market mechanism is perfect and there is no need for an outside intervention for it to function effectively. In his 1982 article â€Å"No need for morality: The Case of Competitive Market†, David Gauthier states that in a â€Å"perfect† market outside intervention will in turn adversely affect the market. However, to contradict this idea, Ronald Coase, in his influential essay â€Å"The Nature of the Firm†, suggested the idea that the existence of firm itself proves that the market mechanism is not perfect. In this paper, I am going to describe what Gauthier meant by a â€Å"perfect† market, how the existence of firm proves that there are imperfections in the market and an evaluation of both the theories. What is Gauthier’s idea of a â€Å"perfect† market? In his paper article â€Å"No need for morality: The Case of Competitive Market†, Gauthier describes the perfect market as having the following criteria: 1. Individual Endowment and Private Goods In the perfect market, the market is comprised of individual buyers and sellers, and they are all seeking to maximize their own utility. Goods are privately owned, hence ownership is fairly simple and direct. 2. Free market activity, mutual unconcern and the absence of externalities Individual buyers and sellers are free to make their own decisions and they will try to maximize their utility, regardless of the other party or parties’ concern. There are no external factors that can affect the market mechanism 3. Market is perfectly competitive and operating at an equilibrium This means that in the market after a transaction individual gain is assured, in that each can do as well as he/she can, given the other parties actions. Also, in an equilibrium, no one can be better off without someone else being worse off. (Gauthier 1982) Gauthier states that the buyers and sellers in a perfectly competitive market are rational and utility maximizing. Individuals are fully capable of maximizing gain and welfare through the market mechanism without the existence of firms or regulatory bodies. Imagine a rice market where individual sellers set up stalls for individual buyers to buy without the requirement of an outside intervention, that would be a perfectly competitive market. How does the existence of firms prove that the market is not perfect? In his paper Nature of the Firm, Ronald Coase addresses questions such as â€Å"Why do firms exist?† and â€Å"Why isn’t everything done by the market?† In his article he states how imperfections in the market lead individuals to form companies rather than trading bilaterally through short term contracts in the market. The central premise of his theory was that firms exist simply because transactions are cheaper when carried out internally (i.e. within a firm) rather than externally (Coase, 1937). He states that trading bilaterally in the market can impose a great deal of transaction costs, such as hiring workers, negotiating prices and forming short term contracts. Therefore a firm is a device or a nexus of long term contracts under a manager/entrepreneur who brings all the resources together under one roof. The main contrast between Gauthier’s market mechanism and Coase’s firms is that, individuals find is cheaper and more effective work in a hierarchical structure by forming a firm, rather than trading directly in the market. Ronald Coase quotes D.H. Robertson to provide an analogy for the existence of firms: â€Å"Islands of conscious power in this ocean of unconscious co-operation like lumps of butter coagulating in a pail of buttermilk.† Here, firms are the islands of conscious power, and the market is the ocean of unconscious co-operation, provides a good comparison for the two different mechanism. According to Gauthier’s, the utility maximizing buyers and sellers can individually profit more through operating directly through the market without the need for a hierarchical firm. In reality, the market is imperfect (i.e. utility cannot be maximized individually) and firms are the answer to these imperfections. Evaluation Gauthier’s view was not to prove that the market is perfect, but that if there was such a perfect market there would be no need for regulatory bodies or moral constraints. â€Å"Our concern is to show that morality has no place in an ideal context of interaction, not to claim that this ideal has direct practical application†, writes Gauthier. So his paper states the needlessness of morality in a perfectly competitive market, which does not exist in reality. Modern market is comprised of large corporations, which in turn disproves the idea that the market is not as perfect as Smith thought it to be. Adam Smith’s approach was to provide a simplistic answer to inefficient government intervention and bureaucracies, and to this day globalization, free market and specialization have been key to the success of our economy. Both Adam Smith’s and Ronald Coase’s literature have been put to question throughout, and their theories have been refined to meet the expectations of modern economics. However, their theories lay the fundamental groundwork for modern economic theory. The 2008 financial market crash is a great example of a situation where Smith’s â€Å"invisible hand† failed to protect the society’s welfare, where a handful of Wall Street investment firms fraudulently sold billions of dollars of worth securities to its clients, that lost its value overnight. The need for morality and external regulatory bodies, the existence of firms and modern corporate culture disproves the idea that the market is perfect. Bibliography Coase, Ronald. 1937. â€Å"The Nature of the Firm,† Economica, 4: 386-405 Gauthier, David. 1982. â€Å"No Need for Morality: The Case of the Competitive Market†. Philosophic Exchange, 3: 41-54